The following steps outline a simple and effective strategy for writing a research paper. Depending on your familiarity with the topic and the challenges you encounter along the way, you may need to rearrange these steps.
Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound — they describe situations. They do not make accurate predictions, and they do not determine cause and effect. There are three main types of descriptive methods: This article will briefly describe each of these methods, their advantages, and their drawbacks.
This may help you better understand research findings, whether reported in the mainstream media, or when reading a research study on your own.
Observational Method With the observational method sometimes referred to as field observation animal and human behavior is closely observed.
There are two main categories of the observational method — naturalistic observation and laboratory observation. The biggest advantage of the naturalistic method of research is that researchers view participants in their natural environments.
This leads to greater ecological validity than laboratory observation, proponents say.
Ecological validity refers to the extent to which research can be used in real-life situations. Proponents of laboratory observation often suggest that due to more control in the laboratory, the results found when using laboratory observation are more meaningful than those obtained with naturalistic observation.
Laboratory observations are usually less time-consuming and cheaper than naturalistic observations. Of course, both naturalistic and laboratory observation are important in regard to the advancement of scientific knowledge.
Case Study Method Case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of indviduals. Case studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena. Case studies should not be used to determine cause and effect, and they have limited use for making accurate predictions.
There are two serious problems with case studies — expectancy effects and atypical individuals. Describing atypical individuals may lead to poor generalizations and detract from external validity.
Survey Method In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires. After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given. In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly.
Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend. Another consideration when designing questions is whether to include open-ended, closed-ended, partially open-ended, or rating-scale questions for a detailed discussion refer to Jackson, Advantages and disadvantages can be found with each type: Open-ended questions allow for a greater variety of responses from participants but are difficult to analyze statistically because the data must be coded or reduced in some manner.
Closed-ended questions are easy to analyze statistically, but they seriously limit the responses that participants can give. It is important to emphasize that descriptive research methods can only describe a set of observations or the data collected.
It cannot draw conclusions from that data about which way the relationship goes — Does A cause B, or does B cause A? Nothing could be further from the truth. Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach 3rd edition. Jamie has written seven books and co-authored one.Prepare a 1, to 1,word paper in which you describe the research process.
Include the following: Include new terminology learned from the reading. How will this new terminology and knowledge apply to a career in criminal justice? Prepare a 5 page paper (not including title and reference pages) in which you describe the research process.
Include the following: Include new terminology learned from . The report of the National Reading Panel states that the complex process of comprehension is critical to the development of children’s reading skills and cannot be understood without a clear understanding of the role that vocabulary development and instruction play in understanding what is read (NRP, ).
CJA Week 1 Research Process and Terminology Paper Include new terminology learned from the reading. S. Asked by studstudent 1 year ago. Prepare a 1, to 1,word paper in which you describe the research process. Include the following: Include new terminology learned from the reading.
Include new terminology learned from the reading. Abstract Research includes any gathering of data, information, and facts for the advancement of knowledge.
Those interested in the study of criminology and criminal justice has a wide range of research methods. Following the research process will strengthen the chance of obtaining a successful, well researched project. CJA Research Process and Terminology Paper Include new terminology learned from the reading.
How will this new terminology and knowledge apply to a career in criminal justice? How can not knowing the proper terminology affect you as you conduct criminal justice research? Include new terminology learned from the reading.
How will this new.